Simon Stevin explained the Moon's attraction made the tides--a point which Galileo got wrong.
Albrecht of Saxony described a thought experiment in the 14th century in which he imagined two equal-sized falling bodies attached by a string, and then mentally cutting the string. It was absurd to imagine the two separate bodies would suddenly decelerate to half speed.. This thought experiment is also attributed to Galileo, quite a bit later.
The textbooks leave a lot out.
What brought this little essay on was the Quillette article A Celebration of Errors, in which they attribute the debunking of Aristotle's theory of motion to Galileo. He came to the party a little late.